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Excerpt of the research study: Language-in-education models comparative perspective

The NPLD awarded to the three researchers Mr. Vicent Ferrando, Ms. Montserrat Sendra and Mr. Avel·lí Flors a research study to compare the immersion education models in five multilingual territories across Europe: Catalonia and Basque Country (Spain), Wales (United Kingdom), Ireland, and Brittany (France). We show here an abstract of the study with the highlights of the comparative results which will be fully presented and uploaded to this section soon.

Catalonia 

Language status and demography 

    • Catalan is an official language in the different Catalan-speaking territories in Spain (Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands), along with Spanish. Occitan is also an official language, spoken in the Aran Valley. Outside this territory, its effective official status is more limited. The Catalan Sign Language also has legal support in Catalonia. 
    • The 1978 Spanish Constitution establishes Spanish as the official Language of the State but allows the autonomous communities or regions of Spain to make other local languages also official.
    • Autonomous Communities assumed legislative and executive powers in educational matters and take over all the powers that are not expressly attributed to the Spanish state by the Constitution.
    • The autonomous communities are indeed responsible for regulating and administering all educational levels and grades, types and curricula in their respective territories. These educational administrations are, according to the Spanish Constitution, on equal footing with the Spanish Ministry of Education.
    • The regulations in Catalonia state that Catalan must be the language commonly used as means of instruction and learning within the education system.  

Demolinguistic data 

    • 81.5% of the population above 15 are able to speak Catalan in Catalonia, according to the Catalan Language Census in the Population (EULP 2018). 
    • 76.6% uses Catalan at some point during the day.  
    • Spanish is used by 93.2% of the adult population.  
    • 18.6% of the population use a language other than Catalan or Spanish on a daily basis 

Language-in-education policy 

The principles on which the Catalan model is based are the following: 

  • a) Students cannot be segregated in schools or class groups by virtue of their language. 
  • b) At the end of compulsory secondary education, the students will be proficient in both Catalan and Spanish. It is important to emphasise that the model must guarantee full functional bilingualism at the end of compulsory schooling 
  • c) Catalan is the main language of instruction in the education system. 
  • d) To assist the students who join the system without prior knowledge of one of the official languages (newcomers), the education system implements measures to ensure linguistic support to facilitate their integration
  • e) Parents or guardians of the students whose family language is Spanish can choose to request a personalised language option for their children so that during the first year of their schooling they can get personalised attention in this language. 
  • f) A new Court ruling (2020) sets that 25% of subjects must use Spanish as the language of instruction.  

Results 

The goal of the system is to ensure that at the end of compulsory schooling, all students, regardless of origin or mother tongue, achieve similar results in both official Catalan and Spanish (and in Aranese, in the Aran Valley).  

Primary education

The data below offer the average language score in four languages (Catalan, Spanish, English and French) over the period 2016-2018 in primary education. The data in the graph show very similar results for Catalan and Spanish (as well as English and French). There are no significant differences in terms of language achievements between the two official languages.  

Source: Data: System of Education Indicators in Catalonia. Education System Assessment Council. Language Policy Report. Directorate-General for Language Policy  

Language Policy Report 2019 (gencat.cat)  

Secondary education

Similar results are achieved in secondary education, as shown in graph below: no significant differences between Catalan and Spanish. In some years, Spanish ranks slightly higher.   

 

Source: Data: System of Education Indicators in Catalonia. Education System Assessment Council. Language Policy Report. Directorate-General for Language Policy  

For more information on the Catalan language-in-education model see The language model of the Catalan education system Language learning and use in a multilingual and multicultural educational environment 

 

Basque Autonomous Community

Language status and demography 

  • Euskara or Basque is a language isolate spoken in the seven provinces of Euskal Herria, across two states: Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea and Zuberoa in southern France, and Araba, Bizkaia, Gipuzkoa and Nafarroa in northern Spain. This report focuses on the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), comprising the provinces of Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa. 
  • According to the latest available demographic figures, in the BAC Basque has 631,000 speakers, representing 33.9 % of the total population, and 356,000 receptive bilinguals, representing 19.1 % of the total population (Eusko Jaurlaritza, Hizkuntza Politikarako Sailburuordetza; Nafarroako Gobernua, Euskarabidea; Euskararen erakunde publikoa, 2016). Thus, more than half of the BAC’s population claim to at least understand Basque. The number of Basque speakers in the BAC has increased by 212,000 since 1991. 
  • In 1979 Basque achieved the status of official language in the BAC alongside Castilian (Spanish). Castilian is the only official language of the Spanish State, and the Spanish Constitution mandates that every Spanish citizen has a right and a duty to know it. 

Language-in-education policy

  • Historically, teaching of/in Basque has not been supported by public bodies, and it has been explicitly repressed in several periods, including General Franco’s Dictatorship, when the first experiences of private, community-led schools in Basque (ikastolas) started. 
  • In 1982, the Law on the Normalization of the Use of Euskara recognised a right to be schooled in both Basque and Castilian and established the goal to provide a “sufficient practical knowledge of both official languages at the end of compulsory education”.
  • To achieve that, a 1983 Decree implemented three linguistic models for compulsory schooling: 
    • A Model. Castilian is the medium of instruction of content subjects, and Basque language is taught as a compulsory subject. 
    • B Model. Both Basque and Castilian are used as medium of instruction of content subjects. 
    • D Model. Basque is the medium of instruction of content subjects, and Castilian language is taught as a compulsory subject. 
  • In 2021, nearly 75 % of pupils in the BAC are enrolled in the D Model (EUSTAT 2022a, 2022b). The dramatic increase in the enrolment rates in this model are paralleled by a rapid decline of the A Model (3.0 % in Nursery and Primary Schools, 6.4 % in Secondary Schools), and a slower decline of B Model (17.8 % in Nursery and Primary Schools, 22.2 % in Secondary Schools). 

Results

  • Based on the Diagnostic Evaluations published by the official body ISEI-IVEI (2021a, 2021b, 2021c) for pupils in the 2nd course of Secondary Compulsory Education (aged 13-14), pupils attending Basque-medium schools (D Model) obtain better results in “linguistic communication competence” in Basque than those attending bilingual schools (B Model) or Castilian-medium schools (A Model). Results for Castilian and English are more homogenous across models, and the main conditioning variable is not the linguistic model but the socioeconomic status of students, based on the type of school they attend (better results for pupils attending private schools than for pupils attending state schools). 
  • Combining results in both Basque and Castilian, ISEI-IVEI (ISEI-IVEI, Eusko Jaurlaritza, 2018) also evaluates to what extent pupils in the different linguistic models and types of school achieve “bilingualism”, meaning an Intermediate or Advanced level in both official languages, as mandated by the law. Results are shown in the table. Again, Basque-medium schools (D Model) concentrate the better results, with more than two thirds (in private schools) and more than half (in public schools) of the pupils achieving bilingualism. The A Model concentrates the worse results, particularly in public schools. It is worth noting the fact that a great majority of BAC’s pupils are enrolled in the models providing better results, as shown in the last column of the table. 
Model  Pupils achieving “bilingualism”  Pupils not achieving “bilingualism”  % of pupils in the school system 
A Public  1,8 %  98,2 %  2,4 % 
A Private  22,4 %  77,6 %  5,7 % 
B Public  22,3 %  77,7 %  3,3 % 
B Private  42,2 %  57,8 %  22,1 % 
D Public  56,4 %  43,6 %  41,3 % 
D Private  67,5 %  32,5 %  25,2 % 

 

Brittany

Language status and demography 

  • Breton is a Celtic language, qualified by UNESCO as “severely endangered”. It is spoken in France: in the Brittany Region and in the Loire Atlantique Department. 
  • The language has experienced a great decline in the number of speakers during the last century: at the beginning of the 20th century, there were 1,100,000 speakers; at the end, 210,000, of which 80 % were over sixty years old (TMO-Région, 2018). In addition, intergenerational transmission is practically non-existent nowadays (Héran et al. 2002). 
  • French language is the only official language of the country. The French Constitution only refers to regional languages as “part of the heritage of France”. 

Language-in-education policy

  • After the approval of the Ferry Law, in 1882, which required the use of French as the school language, the process of introducing the teaching of regional languages into the French educational system has been slow and difficult. 
  • Currently, there are four types of language programmes in Brittany: 
    • Schools without the presence of the Breton language 
    • Schools with the presence of the Breton language: 
      • Associative schools (ruled by parents), called Diwan, with a language immersion programme. 
      • Public bilingual schools (ruled by the French State), with 50 % of the subjects taught in French and 50 % in Breton. 
      • Catholic bilingual schools (private schools), with 50 % of the subjects taught in French and 50 % in Breton. 
  • However, the percentage of students who attend schools with the presence of the Breton language remains very low (2 % in 2017, source: Mercator, 2019). 

Results

  • Language competence in Breton: students in the immersion programme achieve the best results in Breton (65.4 % achieve a B2 level in the 3rd course), compared with the other models. 
Model  A2  B1  B2 
Associative schools  2.5 %  32.1 %  65.4 % 
Public bilingual schools  29.9 %  43.3 %  26.8 % 
Catholic bilingual schools  33.9 %  47.3 %  18.8 % 

Source: Bernabé & Dubourg-Lavroff, 2019 

  • Language competence in French in the immersion program in Breton is not affected, with more than 80 % of the students of the 6th course within the “Good” or “Excellent” levels (Bernabé & Dubourg-Lavroff, 2019). 
  • The average mark in the Diplôme National du Brevet (the final exam of college, that tests the knowledge of French language, Mathematics, History/Geography and Science) of the centres that apply the immersion programme is higher than the overall French average. 
Model  2016  2017  2018 
Associative schools (Diwan)  98.6 %  98.5 %  99.0 % 
National   87.9 %  89.0 %  87.3 % 

Source: Bernabé & Dubourg-Lavroff, 2019 

 

Republic of Ireland

Language status and demography 

  • Irish is a Celtic language, qualified by UNESCO as “definitely endangered”. It is spoken in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland. 
  • In 2016, 39.8 % of the Republic of Ireland population was able to speak Irish, but only 4.2 % spoke it daily. In the Gaeltacht area (96,090 inhabitants), the region with the largest concentration of Irish speakers, 66.3 % could speak it (CSO, 2017). 
  • Irish is recognized as national and first official language in Ireland’s Constitution, along with English, which is the second official language. Since 2022, it is also an official language of the European Union 

Language-in-education policy

  • Currently, there are two types of language programmes: 
    • English-medium schools, with English as the main medium of instruction and Irish taught as a second language in one subject, as part of the core curriculum during the years of compulsory schooling (6-15). Since 2019, Irish can be also used in other subjects (for instance, Physical Education) in order to increase exposure to the language. In these other subjects, it is taught with CLIL techniques. 
    • Irish-medium schools, with Irish as the primary medium of instruction and English as a subject, in the Gaeltacht and outside the Gaeltacht. 
  • However, the percentage of students who attend Irish-medium schools (both in primary and secondary) remains very low (less than 10 % in 2010, according to Mass-Mouri, 2015). 

Results

  • Irish-medium immersion students achieve much higher levels of L2 proficiency than do non-immersion students studying the L2 as a subject area in English-medium education. The English-medium education does not ensure a proficient level of Irish, with a notable minority of students failing to attain mastery in Irish listening, speaking and general comprehension skills (Harris, 1984, 1988, 1991; Harris et al., 2006; Harris and Murtagh, 1998, 1999; cited in Ó Ceallaigh and Dhonnabháin, 2015). 
  • The results of nationally-standardized tests of English reading and Mathematics of the immersion programme in areas of disadvantage compared to those of students attending schools in areas of disadvantage nationally are lower at grade 3, but achieve the same level in Mathematics and outperform in English reading at grade 6. 

Wales 

Language status and demography 

  • Welsh is a Celtic language. It is spoken in Wales, in the United Kingdom, although smaller Welsh-speaking populations may be found in other countries as a result of emigration. 
  • Despite being the only Celtic language not categorized as endangered by UNESCO, the number of Welsh speakers has suffered a steady decline in the last centuries, as reflected in Census data. In 1891, the first Census recorded 910,289 people able to speak Welsh, representing 51.2 % of Wales’s population. In 1911, despite a growth in the total number of speakers (977,366), Welsh speakers were already on the minority in Wales (43.5 %). The last available figures, corresponding to the 2011 Census, record 562,016 speakers, corresponding to 19.0 % of the total population (Stats Wales, 2012). 
  • The 1993 Welsh Language Act established that Welsh and English should be treated on a basis of equality in Wales, and that the knowledge and use of Welsh should be promoted and facilitated. However, it was not until the 2011 Welsh Language Measure that Welsh gained official status in Wales. 

Language-in-education policy

  • The school curriculum currently in force mandates the compulsory teaching of Welsh in all the stages of compulsory education, from year 1 (Foundation phase, age 5) to year 11 (Key stage 4, age 16). Two different subjects coexist, depending on the type of Welsh-medium provision offered by schools: 
    • Welsh (often referred to as “Welsh as a first language”) is a Core Subject in Welsh-medium schools. 
    • Welsh second language is a Foundation Subject in English-medium and bilingual schools. 
  • A considerable degree of variation exists regarding the forms of Welsh-medium provision offered by schools, both between and within local authorities. The document Defining schools according to Welsh medium provision, published by the Welsh Government, represents an attempt to clarify this variation by establishing different categories of schools. Schematically, three types of provision may be found in Welsh primary and secondary schools: 
    • Welsh-medium schools, where most of the curriculum is taught through the medium of Welsh. 
    • A range of different models of bilingual provision, in which both Welsh and English are used as a medium of instruction of content subjects. 
    • English-medium schools, where most of the curriculum is taught through the medium of English, and Welsh is taught as a second language. 
  • According to Stats Wales (2022), the number of pupils attending Welsh-medium schools has grown slightly from 73,812 in the 2016/2017 school year to 78,081 in 2020/2021. Nonetheless, percentages remain low (e.g., 16.4 % of the total in 2020/2021). The same year, a great majority of pupils (347,169, 73.1 %) attended English-medium schools, and 43,530 (9.2 %) received some form of bilingual schooling. Welsh-medium provision remains stronger in primary school (20.9 %) than in secondary school (9.1 %). 

Results

  • Different reports issued by official bodies have singled out that generally “pupils who have followed the Welsh second language curriculum are not able to use their language skills outside the classroom” (Department for Education and Skills, Welsh Government, 2013, p. 19). Only those taking the subject of Welsh as a first language in Welsh-medium schools are generally assumed to be fluent speakers of the language at the end of compulsory education (reaching a B1/B2 level of the CEFR). The figures of pupils taking this subject reflect a moderate increase in the last years, from 74,484 (16.2 %) in 2016/2017 to 79,304 (16.9 %) in 2020/2021. 
  • Further evidence comes from the results of the English language and the Welsh language tests in the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which pupils take at the end of compulsory education, presented according to broad medium of school (English medium and Welsh medium)1. As shown in the table, with data from the 2020/2021 school year: 
    • Results of the English language test, which is common for all students irrespective of the school medium, show that pupils in Welsh-medium schools reach even better results (54,3 % “strong pass” A*-B, 78 % “standard pass” A*-C) than pupils in English-medium ones (49,2 % “strong pass” A*-B, 72,7 % “standard pass” A*-C). 
    • Results for Welsh do not allow for a comparison between models, because only pupils in Welsh-medium schooling take the Welsh as a first language test, whereas pupils in English-medium schooling take the exam of Welsh as a second language. Only those studying Welsh first language and passing the test (A*-C) can be deemed speakers: figures show that most of the students in Welsh-medium education achieve this goal (80,2 %). 
Test  School medium  Result achieved 
A*-A  B  C  D-G+U 
English  English-medium  24.1 %  25.1 %  23.5 %  27.3 % 
Welsh-medium  26.1 %  28.2 %  23.7 %  22.0 % 
Welsh  Welsh-medium  26.9 %  27.4 %  26.0 %  19.8 % 
Welsh second language  English-medium  26.0 %  22.1 %  23.0 %  28.9 % 

 

Accessibility for Regional or Minority Languages to EU programmes. A practical assessment

January 2021 Tags: EU fundingEuropean UnionRegional Minority Languages

Authorship: Helga Kuipers-Zandberg and Anna Fardau Schukking, Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning. Project coordinators: Cor van der Meer, Mercator Research Centre, and Vicent Climent-Ferrando, Government of Catalonia

The Resolution of the European Parliament on a Community Charter of Regional Languages and Cultures and on a Charter of Rights of Ethnic Minorities (OJ C 287 9 November 1981) created a separate budget line to provide support to regional and minority languages (RMLs) (Gazzola, Grin, Häggman, & Moring, 2016). In 1998, however, this budget line for regional and minority languages was suspended as a result of a ruling delivered by the Court of Justice. This has had devastating effects for these languages, as the support for these languages is now provided through a broader framework (known as mainstreaming), along with other (non-language or non-regional/minority-language) related projects. RMLs had to face a new paradigm, that is, competing with more powerful languages for financial support as well as identifying new, unexplored possibilities for funding (as language is transversal and can be part of a larger objective when applying for funding), but lower chances of acceptance in competing with stronger and/or larger language communities.

This report represents a first attempt to investigate how funding opportunities for RMLs have been used and allocated over the period 2014-2020. It is the joint result between the Mercator European Research Centre on Multilingualism and Language Learning, hosted by the Fryske Akademy, and the Directorate-General for Language Policy of the Government of Catalonia, with the financial support of the European Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity.

Analysing the EU agreements with Spain and the UK on the use of Regional or Minority Languages. A practical assessment

January 2021 Tags: Administrative AgreementsEuropean UnionRegional Minority LanguagesSpainUK

Authorship: Eva Pons Parera and Katharina Jiménez Weese, Universitat de Barcelona. Editor/coordinator: Vicent Climent-Ferrando, Government of Catalonia

The European Union (EU)’s language policy does not include Regional and Minority Languages (RMLs) as official EU languages. Some EU institutions, however, have reached an administrative agreement with the UK and the Spanish Governments on the use of certain RMLs (Basque, Catalan, Galician, Welsh and Scots Gaelic), respectively. In both cases, translations are provided by the government of the Member State concerned, only when requested and at its own expense. These language communities are often not aware of the use of these agreements.

The aim of this report is to evaluate these agreements to see how (in)effective these have been. The report also explores the possibilities of expanding these agreements to other RMLs in other Member States.

The present report has been developed by researchers from the University of Barcelona and coordinated by the Directorate-General for Language Policy of the Government of Catalonia, with the financial support of the European Network to Promote Linguistic Diversity.

High school reform and territorial language teaching in France

#6 Focus Report Spring-Summer 2020 Tags: Blanquer lawEducationFranceRegional Languages

Authorship: Office Public de la Langue Bretonne (OPLB)

The controversial Law 2019-791 for a school of confidence, promoted by Minister Jean-Michel Blanquer and adopted by the National Assembly on 4 July 2019 at the end of a tortuous legislative process, represents the greatest threat to the fragile recovery of France’s historical languages.

This article analyses the principles and impact of the reform on territorial languages teaching in France and concludes with a set of reccomendations to contribute to the promotion and study of the territorial languages in the country.

La version en anglais de cet article est disponible ici.

Réforme du Lycée et enseignement des langues territoriales en France

#6 Focus Report Spring-Summer 2020 Tags: Blanquer lawEducationFranceRegional Languages

Authorship: Office Public de la Langue Bretonne (OPLB)

La controversée loi 2019-791 pour une école de la confiance, promue par le ministre Jean-Michel Blanquer et adoptée par l’Assemblée Nationale le 4 juillet 2019 au terme d’un processus législatif tortueux, représente la plus grande menace pour la fragile reprise des langues historiques de France.

Cet article analyse les principes et incidences de la réforme sur l’enseignement des langues territoriales en France et conclut une série de recommandations pour contribuer à la promotion et à l’étude des langues territoriales en France.

The English version of this article is available here.

2019 NPLD-Coppieters Campus: Activating the social use of minority languages

#5 Focus Report Winter 2019-20 Tags: Basque languageCatalan languageEconomylinguistic diversitySocial use of languagesTransmission within familiesWelsh language

Authorship: Directorate-General for Basque Promotion of the Government of the Basque Country, Directorate-General for Language Policy of the Catalan Government and the Welsh Government’s Welsh Language Board.

Eighty language planners, politicians, university researchers and representatives of associations from regions all over Europe gathered in Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain) on 17-18 October 2019 to participate in the second edition of the NPLD-Coppieters Campus. The aim of the two-day meeting was to learn from each other’s best practices in the field of language planning to “activate the social use of minority languages” in different spheres of life.

The representatives of the Basque Country focused their presentations on the Euskaraldia project. Two projects to promote the Catalan language among large companies, (Emmarca’t) and among small businesses led by newcomers (Ofercat), were presented by the Government of Catalonia. Finally, the transmission of Welsh language within families was presented as the focus of the Welsh Language Board project. This report is a summary of the good practices presented during the Campus.

The ECCA project: kick-off meeting and tools

#2 ECCA Report January 2020 Tags: European Charter for Regional or Minority Languagesschool activitiesyouth

Authorship: Elija Lutze, Universitat Jaume I / Xarxa Vives d’Universitats (Vives Universities Network)

In this report, the author explores some of the tools that the European Charter Classroom Activities (ECCA) project intends to develop during the 2019-2020 academic year in order to contribute to the dissemination of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) and to raise awareness among young European citizens about the value of linguistic diversity through education. This includes developing activities and teaching units and competitions, creating a website and ECRML-related content for social networks, preparing modules for universities, organizing meetings, conferences and a school exchange.

Read the original article in Catalan here.

The ECCA project: contents and aims

#1 ECCA Report January 2020 Tags: EducationEuropean Charter for Regional or Minority Languagesschool activitiesyouth

Authorship: Elija Lutze, Universitat Jaume I / Xarxa Vives d’Universitats (Vives Universities Network)

The author briefly addresses the issue of linguistic diversity and then explores some of the characteristics of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the most important legal instrument for the protection and promotion of linguistic diversity in Europe. Finally, he explains the contents and objectives of the European Charter Classroom Activities (ECCA) project, which brings the principles of the Charter into the classroom.

The ECCA project is granted by NPLD and developed by the following partners: Comun General de Fascia (Province of Trento, Italy), as leading partner, Province of Friesland (Friesland, The Netherlands), ARLeF (Friuli, Italy), Afûk (Friesland, The Netherlands), University of Udine-CIRF (Friuli, Italy), Vives Universities Network (Valencia, Spain) and Partium Christian University (Oradea, Romania).

Read the original article in Catalan here.

Zornotzako Barnetegia. Dedicated to Basque language acquisition among adults for the last 25 years

#4 Focus Report Autumn 2019 Tags: Basque languagebest practiceEducationLanguage PolicyRevitalisation

Authorship: Mikel Etxebarria Etxeita, president. Aurten Bai Foundation

The main objective of the Basque Country government’s language policy following the Francoist dictatorship was the revitalisation and normalisation of the Basque language among the population (young and old). This article provides a comprehensive overview of how Zornotzako Barnetegia created a recipe for success in Basque language acquisition among adults with the implementation of a residential language programme in 1993.

Measuring the vitality of languages in Catalan society

#3 Focus Report Summer 2019 Tags: AraneseCatalanLanguage PlanningLanguage PolicyMigrationOccitansurvey

Authorship: Directorate-General for Language Policy, Government of Catalonia

This report is based on the conclusions of the latest Survey on Language Use of the Population 2018 recently published by the Government of Catalonia, which primary goal is to measure the health and vitality of Catalan and Occitan in the Aran Valley (both official languages of Catalonia, along with Spanish) as well as the use of other languages by the population of Catalonia. These data are crucial as they act as a thermometer of the strength of Catalan and Occitan languages as well as the use of lingua francas, such as English or French, along with the presence of the languages brought to Catalonia by migration. It is, in sum, a useful tool needed to develop sound language policy and planning.

NPLD Position Paper & Action Plan 2019-2020

Spring 2019 Tags: Action PlanEuropean institutionsLanguage PlanningLanguage PolicyPolicy actionsPosition PaperRoadmap

Authorship: Vicent Fenollar i Sastre is the Policy and Outreach Manager at the NPLD

In 2015 the NPLD published The European Roadmap for Linguistic Diversity, in order to substantiate and formalize the strategic aims of its policy and practical work for the benefit of the Constitutional, Regional or Smaller State (CRSS) languages, that are used within and among the members of the network. Due to changes in the conditions regulating and facilitating the promotion of these languages, both internationally and at national and regional levels, the NPLD now has renewed and developed a document, that for the closest future will function with similar, language policy aims as the Roadmap.

’21 Días co Galego e +’ (21 Days with Galician and More)

#2 Focus Report Spring 2019 Tags: BilingualismEducationGalicianMultilingualismRevitalisationSchools

Authorship: Gregorio Ferreiro Fente is a Galician Language and Literature teacher in secondary education; he is currently working as technical teaching advisor at the General Secretariat of Language Policy of the Galician Government (Spain)

Under the title ’21 Días co Galego e +’ (21 Days with Galician and More). Establishing the habit of using the Galician language at all times and in all places, this report focuses on an intriguing project that aims to motivate school-age young people to use the Galician language in the multiple activities in which they interact socially every day.

Brexit and its consequences for the autochthonous regional or minority languages of the UK

#1 Focus Report Spring 2019 Tags: BrexitCornishIrelandIrishNorthern IrelandScotlandScotsScottish GaelicUKUlster ScotsWelsh

Authorship: Professor Diarmait Mac Giolla Chríost, Cardiff University, Wales, UK, and Dr Matteo Bonotti, Monash University, Australia

The first issue of the series NPLD Focus Reports presents a brief overview of the potential implications of Brexit for the autochthonous regional or minority languages of the UK, noting that there are a range of issues in the areas of law and of public policy, as well as in terms of values.

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